Kutipan Langsung dan Tidak Langsung

kita menulis kutipan langsung, kapan melakukan paraphrasing?

Kutipan langsung jika terlalu banyak dapat mengurangi “readability” tulisan. Kutipan langsung boleh dilakukan bila memang benar-benar perlu, yaitu

  • untuk mengutip definisi,
  • jika tulisan aslinya dirasa terlalu sempurna, dan
  • untuk mendukung argumen.


Thavamaran Kanesan

Pedoman Merancang Program Pelatihan

Image result for training program

Rujukan dalam mendesain pelatihan

Training Material Development Guide – Msb
Designing and implementing training programs – Management …
Training Module on Personality Development …
Training Module – the United Nations
10-step process for developing training courses – AAP.org
training module – UNEP – Geneva
How to Create Effective Training Manuals
Training of Trainers: Designing and Delivering Effective … – Equitas
Design an Effective Model for Training the Trainers
The New Project Design and Management Workshop Training Manual

Skala Pengukuran Spiritualitas


Fisher (2010)

(1) Personal; (2) Environmental; (3) Communal; and (4) Transcendental


2. Dimensions of Spirituality: A Framework for Adult Educators

Fenwick and Lange (1998)

(1) life and death; (2) soul and self; (3) cosmology; (4) knowledge; (5) the Bway^; (6) focus; (7) practices of spirituality and the role of others; and (8) responses.


3. Daily Spiritual Experience Scale (DSES) Underwood et al. (2002)

(1) Strength and Comfort; (2) Perceived Divine Love; (3) Inspiration or Discernment


4. Developing and Validating a Questionnaire to Measure Spirituality: A Psychometric Process

Parsian and Dunning (2009)

(1) Importance of spiritual beliefs; (2) Self-awareness; (3) Environmental awareness; (4) Relationships; (5) Spiritual needs; (6) Spiritual experiences


5. Spirituality Assessment Scale (SAS)

Beazley (1998)

(1) Living the faith relationship; (2) Prayer or meditation; (3) Honesty; (4) Humility; (5) Service towards others


6. Spirituality Assessment Scale (SAS)

Howden (1992)

(1) Unifying Connectedness; (2) Purpose & Meaning in Life; (3) Innerness & Transcendence (non-religious orientation)


Spirituality Measurement Scale (SMS)

1 Self Engagement (ENG)

1.1 Meditation

1.2 Yoga

1.3 Reading books about self development

1.4 Spiritual singing

1.5 Chanting Mantras

1.6 Attending spiritual workshops/activities/events

2 Service towards others (STO)

2.1 I give my time to help others.

2.2 I sacrifice my personal ego needs to do what best serves’ others.

2.3 I give my material resources to help others.

2.4 I am generally humble to others.

2.5 Compassion comes naturally to me.

  1. Self Efficacy (SE)

3.1 I have a meaningful life.

3.2 I have confidence in my actions.

3.3 Most of the time, I have a positive approach.

3.4 If I could live my life again, I would change nothing.

3.5 I am a self-content person.

3.6 The progression of my life is as expected.

3.7 So far, I have got everything I deserve.

3.8 I am satisfied with my life, as a whole.

  1. Transcendence (T)

4.1 Creates an atmosphere Of positivity.

4.2 Promotes peaceful living.

4.3 Helps in reducing depression.

4.4 Relates to a person’s search for finding greater meaning in one’s existence.

4.5 Is what keeps people anchored to happiness.

4.6 A holistic approach that embraces all, under one super natural being.

4.7 A belief, that we all derive the supreme power from one common source.

4.8 Helps in realizing one’s higher purpose in life.

4.9 Bowing before his will without any doubt.

4.10 Spirit of keep going and not giving up.

4.11 Promotes togetherness among all beings.

4.12 Helps in having clarity in life.

4.13 Enhances healthy lifestyle.

4.14 Working together to resolve conflicts in a positive way.

4.15 Utilizing the power of the rational mind for the benefit of the society.

4.16 Being connected with divinity.

4.17 Spreads the message of unity in diversity.

4.18 A feeling of oneness with all living beings.

4.19 The awareness of my spirit.

  1. Self Awareness (SA)

5.1 I have awareness of my career.

5.2 I have awareness of my aspirations.

5.3 I am aware about my desires.

5.4 I am aware about my daily needs.

5.5 I have awareness of my body.

5.6 I have awareness of my family.

Makkar, S., & Singh, A. K. (2018). Development of a spirituality measurement scale. Current Psychology, 1-8.


Makalah Konsep vs Makalah Tinjauan

Concept paper and Review paper are the same? Some say yes, I say no. Want to know why? READ 👇 for answers:

1️⃣ Objectives of the papers:
Presents authors’ unique study and a proposed solution for a very specific problem
CRITICALLY analyze existing literature on a topic, can be broad or narrow.

2️⃣ Literature for the papers:
The paper is built upon authors’ original idea, so literature related to the idea should be included
The paper is built upon existing articles, not original, which is also known as secondary literature.

3️⃣ Writing Methodology:
The paper can be written based on a designated framework/solution for a problem in social context, or basic simulation or proposed idea for scientific context.
A specific topic should be selected, followed by summarizing existing literature to exhibit the overall research trend of that topic and its current state.

4️⃣ Complete Structure:
The overall proposed solution will be discussed and a pilot study can be included. Body of the paper would include Abstract, Background, Methodology, and some preliminary results if required, and the findings.
Its all about dissecting the current literature, reporting on common findings, and contradicting findings would be excellent to report. You can include the missing puzzle among the discussed literature, the trend and where its heading, more of future outlook.

5️⃣ Submission Standard:
Mostly Scopus or non-indexed, SCI/SSCI would be tough.
Can hit SCI / SSCI, if written properly with broad literature and strong reporting on any contradictions and great future outlook.

Dr. Thavamaran Kanesan

Pertimbangan Metode Riset Kualitatif, Kuantitatif dan Campuran

Riset Kualitatif

  1. Peneliti kurang memiliki pengetahuan tentang fenomena yang dipelajari
  2. Fenomena yang dipelajari bersifat abstrak
  3. Ada ketidak-pastian apakah pertanyaan yang diajukan merupakan pertanyaan yang tepat


  1. Hasil penelitian sukar atau mustahil digeneralisasi
  2. Hasil tidak obyektif sehingga sukar direplikasi
  3. Tidak ada transparansi

Riset Kuantitatif

  1. Peneliti memiliki pengetahuan yang baik mengenai fenomena yang dipelajari
  2. Fenomena tersebut bersifak konkrit


  1. Hipotesis tidak relevan
  2. Penjelasan bersifat superfisial

Metode Campuran

  1. Waktu dan sumber daya
  2. Pengetahuan terhadap metode
  3. Masalah meyakinkan peneliti mengenai pentingnya metode campuran

Cronholm, S., & Hjalmarsson, A. (2011). Experiences from sequential use of mixed methods. The electronic journal of business research methods, 9(2), 87-95.


Kualitas Penelitian

Mohd. Zaini Abd. Karim, 2018. PhD ColloquiumTalk – What is Quality Research

Perkembangan Riset Mixed Method

Biddle, C., & Schafft, K. A. (2015). Axiology and anomaly in the practice of mixed methods work: pragmatism, valuation, and the transformative paradigm. Journal of Mixed Methods Research, 9(4), 320-334.

Memilih Pengukuran Variabel yang Sesuai

SUBRAMANIAM, 2018. Measurement


Bila statistik tidak signifikan

The basic problem with the null hypothesis significance test in political science is that it often does not tell political scientists what they think it is telling them. (J. Gill)

The statistical difficulties arise more generally with findings that are suggestive but not statistically significant. (A. Gelman and D. Weakliem)

The research methodology literature in recent years has included a full frontal assault on statistical significance testing. (J. E. McLean and J. M. Ernest)

Statistical significance testing has involved more fantasy than fact. (R. Carver)


Figueiredo Filho, Dalson Britto, Ranulfo Paranhos, Enivaldo C. da Rocha, Mariana Batista, José Alexandre da Silva Jr, Manoel L. Wanderley D. Santos, and Jacira Guiro Marino. “When is statistical significance not significant?.” Brazilian Political Science Review 7, no. 1 (2013): 31-55.

Dari temuan penilaian angka kredit 20118, muncul istilah-istilah

  • Masturbasi Publikasi
    Banyak self citation
  • Cartel Citation
    Kasus terjadiya self citation yang luar biasa, lebih dari 70 persen sitasi yang diperoleh adalah sitasi yang dilakukan oleh artikel-artikel yang berasal dari suatu perguruan tinggi.
  • Ghost Authors
    Dapat terjadi bila ada kerjasama publikasi tanpa kerjasama penelitian