Strategies and Implementation Steps Green ICT Campus
Team of Connection Reseach and RMIT University in Melbourne, preparing a Green ICT Framework, which defines the concept of Green ICT and as well as provide an understanding of the components involved in the concept of Green ICT. This framework, known as Connection Reseach-RMIT Green ICT Framework, in which there are four (4) categories of Green ICT area known as the “pillar”, namely: Lifecycle, End Users, Enterprise, and Enablement. And each pillar will be broken down into several categories again. Besides these pillars there are five (5) the action is: Attitude, Policy, Behavior, Technology, and Metric (Philipson, 2010).
Here’s an explanation of the Pillar and Action by one existing on-RMIT Reseach Connection Green ICT Framework (Philipson, 2010).
1) Pillar 1: Equipment Lifecycle
This pillar includes the procurement of ICT equipment, disposal, and recycling activities. All ICT equipment will pass through the “lifecycle”, starting from the production, sale, use (and even reused), also ultimately discarded. ICT equipment disposal process can be a way tampered with, or can be given to an individual or another company, or sale. Thus that a “lifecycle” can be the the part of other “lifecycle”. Equipment Lifecycle pillar consists of:
Two aspects are considered in green procurement is the nature of the equipment itself and the nature of the company or supplier of such equipment. Aspects of the nature of the equipment itself one can use the Energy Star label, indicating that the equipment meets the standards of Green ICT, tested, and certified or official label. As for the company or supplier of such equipment is already implementing regulations and standards that apply in Green ICT, including the tender, the manufacture of ICT equipment, up to distribution. To ensure that the regulations and standards is done, the company uses a measuring instrument that has been tested and using the applicable certification system.
b. Recycle and Reuse
Each company has a regular schedule to perform the replacement of ICT components (hardware or software). Replacement is done periodically, or wait until the condition of these components can not be reused, or can no longer meet the needs of the company. But sometimes the replacement is done too quickly, especially for software, because the speed out the latest software version. To overcome this, then during the process of updating the system (hardware and software) can be considered to not do a whole replacement. Eg by maintaining hardware can still function properly, and the software still has the support of the vendor.
c. Disposal of ICT System
At the end of the ICT equipment will be disposed of when physically been damaged or have been unable to function. Thus need to be considered garbage disposal due to ICT systems (electronic waste or e-waste). In order not to pollute the environment then the garbage can be sent to the e-waste management company.
2) Pillar 2: End User Computing
This pillar is part of a framework that directly relate to the control exercised by the ICT system users (end user).
a. Personal Computing
Personal computing include: Desktop Computing and Mobile Computing. Desktop computing will be related to the number of users in the enterprise, the greater user will generate greater carbon footprint. PC Power Management technology usage or thin client computing can be used to reduce the number of desktop PCs. The increase of the number of users within a company are not always directly proportional to the increase in the number of PCs because most companies provide an opportunity for employees to work in mobile. However, the use of multiple mobile devices simultaneously for each user is ultimately also be a separate issue to the problem of electrical energy consumption and environmental impact.
b. Departemental Computing
In large organizations, computers used by an end user away from the supervision of the Department of Computing, so it needs to be setup. While at the Department of Computing own, ICT equipment such as servers and various ancillary equipment being targeted priority setting and resource use energy more efficiently.
c. Printing and Consumables
The printer is the amount of equipment that is widely used in the enterprise, uses the electric power inefficient, because when idle, the printer still uses power. In addition, the printer also uses paper and ink, which in the manufacture of paper and ink have an impact on the environment. And waste paper and ink to give a bad impact on the environment too. There needs to be setting the number of the printer (printer sharing mechanism), paper consumption wisely, and distribution of data in softcopy can reduce this risk.
3) Pillar 3: Enterprise Computing
a. Data Centre ICT Equipment
Two major equipment at Data Centre is a server (including mainframes) and storage devices. The server consumes a large electric power consumption, and increased when working processor is also increasing. When the processor increases, the required cooling equipment using greater power. While the use of storage rose exponentially as the price of storage are getting cheaper, so its use is also increasingly ineffective.
b. Data Center Enviromental
Power consumption issues relating to the Data Center Environmental was higher than the power consumption of ICT equipment it’s own, namely: 1) Power supply, including the backup process; 2) Cooling and Lighting, also the equipment outside the ICT equipment that uses a lot of power; and 3) special building for a separate data center.
c. Networking and Communication
Are included in this area are: 1) Local Area Network, which typically use a lot of wires, it is necessary to more efficient cable management; 2) Wide Area Network, often using a VPN or leased line facilities, so it is necessary to control the use of the network as a whole; 3) Wireless communication, this technology reduces the amount of cable in the LAN, but the wireless equipment that stays on when not in use also affect the use of electrical power.
d. Outsourcing and Cloud Computing
Cloud concept is to store the data in the “cloud” that is not known to exist, and whether the company is also using the concept of Green ICT, is also a consideration in the concept of Green ICT.
e. Software Architecture
Software architecture is often determine the hardware architecture used. If the new software requires new hardware specs, then the use of electric power and the old hardware that is no longer used should be considered. In software development, programmers can use the code / syntax that is more efficient, speeding up the execution of the program, to reduce power consumption. Murugesan (2013) also makes the classification on the green software into four categories, namely: 1) software that is more environmentally friendly by consuming less energy; 2) integrated software that helps other work being environmentally friendly; 3) Carbon Management Software (CMS); and 4) a software that can adapt to changes in the weather, estimates the implications and provide thoughtful responses.
4) Pillar 4: ICT as Low-Carbon Enabler
a. Governance and Compliance
Some Green ICT standards may be issued by the association or government. Some countries are already making policy on Green ICT is India by issuing the Green India Mission Under the National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC) in 2011. Britain became the first country to make use of Green ICT policy in education institutions. The Climate Change Act, which came out in 2008 requires universities and large schools to monitor the electrical energy uses (Suryawanshi & Narkhede, 2013). Although Indonesia there are no specific regulations on Green ICT, but has the Government Regulation No. 70 of 2009 on Energy Conversion.
b. Teleworking and Collaboration
The concept of teleworking is used to work remotely, so no need to use the long journey to get to the workplace. With collaboration, the work can be carried out including meetings via teleconference or other technologies. Use of this telecommunication devices still need to be monitored to make it more efficient.
c. Business Process Management (BPM)
BPM will review a series of business processes from start to finish, the process is not effective, redundancies, and unnecessary can be cut / removed to shorten the business process through.
d. Business Application
Many companies use a variety of business applications with large scale such as ERP (Enterprise resourse Planning), SCM (Supply Chain Management), or CRM (Customer Relationship Management). In the selection of business applications should be noted that this application can cut or reduce the data processing time and what hardware needs to be prepared.
e. Carbon Emission Management
By using Carbon Emissions Management Software, the company can consistently measure the carbon emissions resulting from the activities undertaken by the company.
5) Action 1: Attitude
The concept of Green ICT can not be separated from a consistent attitude, and the “environmentally friendly” should be done daily. This attitude also influenced the culture, so it is necessary for organizations to establish environmentally friendly organizational culture.
6) Action 2: Policy
Green ICT policy in the organization must be made from the standpoint of a thorough, consistent, and carefully monitored. Also prepared a methodology for the measurement if the policy is implemented effectively or not.
7) Action 3: Practice
Practice is something that should be done. Small practices but have a significant impact eg turn off the computer when it is not needed, use scrap paper and reduce the amount of paper printed, and perform hardware maintenance well so general a longer battery life, a simple act that can be done.
8) Action 4: Technology
Most think that Green ICT always use the latest technologies, which would add to the cost. The use of ICT equipment is still functioning, the action is better than replacing it with equipment with new technology.
9) Action 5: Metric
Using tools to measure, monitor, control, and mitigation of electric power consumption and carbon emissions, both inside and outside the Department of ICT.
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