Diskusi tentang Skala Likert


Likert scales, levels of measurement and the ‘‘laws’’ of statistics
Geoff Norman
Reviewers of research reports frequently criticize the choice of statistical methods. While some of these criticisms are well-founded, frequently the use of various parametric methods such as analysis of variance, regression, correlation are faulted because: (a) the sample size is too small, (b) the data may not be normally distributed, or (c) The data are from Likert scales, which are ordinal, so parametric statistics cannot be used. In this paper, I dissect these arguments, and show that many studies, dating back to the 1930s consistently show that parametric statistics are robust with respect to violations of these assumptions. Hence, challenges like those above are unfounded, and parametric methods can be utilized without concern for ‘‘getting the wrong answer’’.
Parametric statistics can be used with Likert data, with small sample sizes, with unequal variances, and with non-normal distributions, with no fear of ‘‘coming to the wrong conclusion’’. These findings are consistent with empirical literature dating back nearly 80 years. The controversy can cease (but likely won’t).

Resolving the 50-year debate around using and misusing Likert scales
James Carifio & Rocco Perla

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