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RISET KUALITATIF GENERIK

Penelitian kualitatif dianggap susah karena jenis-jenisnya banyak, bahkan ada
yang membaginya menjadi 46 jenis (Tesch, 2013). Peneliti pemula pasti akan
kesulitan untuk memulainya karena harus mempelajari satu per satu asumsi filosofis
dan metodologis masing-masing jenis penelitian. Untuk itu Merriam dan Tisdell (2018) mengusulkan riset kualitatif generik, yang tidak mensyaratkan
keterikatan dengan berbagai metode penelitian kualitatif. Mereka menjelaskannya
dengan menggunakan paradigma interpretif, bukan paradigma post-positivisme
maupun paradigma pragmatisme (mixed methods).

Nama lain:  Basic, generic or
interpretive
qualitative research, interpretive description, basic or fundamental qualitative description. Penjelasannya secara sederhana:

Metode Riset Kualitatif Generik

1. Sampling

Biasanya jenis samplingnya adalah
theoretical atau pusposive, bukan sampling statistik. Penentuan besarnya sampel
dilakukan dengan cara:

a. Memperhitungkan kejenuhan (saturation)
data.

b. Melakukan judgement dikaitkan dengan
maksud dan tujuan penelitian.

Terjadi perdebatan berkaitan dengan pilihan cara penentuan sampel. Peneliti dapat memilih salah satu, dengan menyampaikan justifikasi terhadap pilihan tersebut.

2. Pengumpulan data

Ada berbagai macam cara: wawancara,
pengamatan, menelaah materi audio-visual, serta analisis dokumen.

3. Analisis data

Langkah-langkah analis data teks:

a.  Pengenalan
data.

b. Memberikan
kode.

c. Kategorisasi
kode.

d.  Kategori dan sub kategori
dijelaskan hubungannya secara logis.

4. Trustworthiness

Dalam riset kuantitatif ada validitas
dan reliabilitas. Kedua konsep tersebut diurai lagi menjadi empat kriteria,
yang kemudian diterjemahkan dalam konteks riset kualitatif:

  • Obyektivitas ->
    konfirmabilitas
  • Reliabilitas -> dependabilitas
  • Validitas internal ->
    kredibilitas
  • Validitas eksternal ->
    transferabilitas

Cara mengerjakannya

a. Dengan menjelaskan bagaimana strategi
atau prosedur mencapai kriteria-kriteria tersebut. Contoh:

Strategy for ensuring transferability. Transferability is vital in qualitative research to achieve external validity (Malagon-Maldonado, 2014; Morse, 2015). The researcher used thick descriptions to enhance transferability as recommended by Morse (2015). As asserted by Malagon-Maldonado (2014), the researcher must have a greater understanding of the research participants’ contextual experiences to capture thick and rich descriptions from the data set. In this study, the researcher extracted thick and rich descriptions from the research participants during the telephone interviews. The researcher’s constructivist-interpretivist research paradigm view allowed him to use quotes (Fujiura, 2015) to illuminate the words, ideas, and meaning of the research participants pertaining their experiences in the manager coach-employee coaching relationship. Additionally, Morse recommended proving the appropriateness of the sample size to reach thick and rich data from research participants. In this study, the sample size (18) was appropriate because the researcher achieved code and meaning saturation (Hennink et al., 2017).

Strategy for ensuring confirmability. … The researcher also used reflexivity as a second strategy
to achieve confirmability (Malagon-Maldonado, 2014). Malagon-Maldonado (2014)
defined reflexivity as the researcher’s state of mind where the researcher
engages in critical reflection of his or her thinking and actions toward their
position in the research project. Also, Orange (2016) recommended using
reflexive research journals during the research process to avoid bias. In this
study, the researcher used a reflexive journal to document anything related to
the research project and to be able to reflect on the research process. In the
reflexive research journal, for example, the researcher tracked conference calls
with his mentor, appointments and follow-ups with research participants, and
drew diagrams to build the theoretical framework of this study. Additionally,
the researcher used his reflexive research journal to document emerging ideas,
interconnected concepts, definitions, descriptions, and his thinking process as
a starting point prior and during the data interpretation.

Alarcon, Erick A. Albarracin. “An Exploratory Qualitative Study of
Employee Perceptions of Effective Manager Coach-Employee Relationship.”
PhD diss., Capella University, 2018.

Dependability is the quality of the collection of data and analysis
activities. The goal is to conduct a study that can be followed by others
(Miles et al., 2014). The researcher outlined the actions data collection and
data analysis activities to ensure the dependability of the study and, in turn,
the reliability (Miles et al., 2014). Risks to dependability are mitigated
through a disciplined application of the structured steps for collection and
analysis of data, which improves the dependability of a study (Graneheim &
Lundman, 2004). The steps describing how data collection and analysis occurred,
enabled a systematic methodology for other researchers to follow.

Credibility in qualitative research is predicated on the trustworthiness
of the results. There is an expectation participants are honest and open when
answering
interview questions
(Graneheim & Lundman, 2004). Graneheim and Lundman described how selecting
participants with various experiences and backgrounds helps ensure the
collection of relevant data. The careful development of inclusion criteria, and
choosing those who fit the inclusion criteria ensured the collection of rich,
in-depth data that was essential for answering the research questions.

According to Barusch, Gringeri, and George (2011), bracketing techniques
help enhance the credibility of a research study. Thus, bracketing techniques
and member-checking were used to improve the creditability of the study. A
reflective journal was used to capture the researcher’s preconceived notions
and understanding provided through previous experiences. When transcribing
interviews, the reflective journal was used to capture bracketed feelings and
thoughts, thus mitigating potential bias and establishing credibility for the
study results.

Fuehrer, Joshua Glen. “Learning approaches that influence business
process modeling and notation: A generic qualitative inquiry.” PhD diss.,
Capella University, 2017.

b. Menggunakan
sekurang-kurangnya dua strategi saja. “
we advise that researchers engage in at least two of them in
any given qualitative study” (Creswell & Poth, 2018; p. 343). Contoh:

One strategy involves clarifying the biases of the researcher, who is
often the sole instrument of data collection and analysis (Creswell, 2007;
Merriam, 2002). In the larger study, from which the data for this study
emerged, a disclosure of my past personal and professional experiences, beliefs
and attitudes, and interest in the topic of inquiry was included to elucidate
factors that likely influenced the collection and interpretation of data (West,
2011). Further, in an attempt to verify the accuracy of the verbatim interview
transcripts, each participant reviewed their interview transcript and notified
me of any discrepancies or missing information. This process of member checking
resulted in minor changes related to the spelling of proper nouns and the
clarification of inaudible portions of the audio files.

Pilot testing was also used in this study to increase the credibility of
the findings (Merriam, 2009). This strategy was employed to ensure that
interview questions were clear and structured to solicit responses that were
relevant to the purpose of the study. In addition, I sought feedback regarding
the conduct of the pilot interview. The interview guide was pilot tested with
an African American woman student affairs professional who had participated in
the AAWS in multiple years. Feedback from the pilot interview resulted in
rewording questions in the second section and reordering of the questions in
the third section of the interview guide.

Nicole M. West. 2017.  “Withstanding our status as outsiders-within: Professional
counterspaces for African American women student affairs administrators”. NASPA Journal About Women in Higher Education, DOI:
10.1080/19407882.2017.1363785

Creswell, John W., and Cheryl N. Poth. 2018. “Qualitative Inquiry & Research Design: Choosing among
Five Approaches”. 4th ed. Thousand Oaks,
California: Sage Publications Inc.

5. Etika penelitian

Dalam wawancara, etika yag perlu
diperhatikan:

a. Jangan menyinggung perasaan
partisipan.

b. Memberikan penjelasan tentang tujuan penelitian.

c. Meminta persetujuan.

d. Menghargai privasi dan kerahasiaan
partisipan.

Semoga bermanfaat.

Sumber:

Jahja, Adi Susilo, Subramaniam Sri Ramalu, and Mohd. Shahril Ahmad Razimi. 2021. “Generic Qualitative Research in Management Studies.” Jurnal Riset Akuntansi Dan Bisnis 7(1):1–13. Unduh