Pengganti “According to”

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Agar tidak monoton dan membosankan, dalam penulisan ilmiah kata “according to…” atau “menurut …” hendaknya dikurangi, diganti dengan berbagai pilihan kata. Penjelasan di bawah ini semoga dapat membantu.

1. as claimed by, in the opinion of, on the authority of

According to local gossip they haven’t been in touch for years.

  1. as claimed by
  2. in the opinion of
  3. on the authority of
  4. as stated by
  5. as believed by
  6. on the report of
  7. as maintained by
  8. on the word of
  9. as said by
  10. based on
  11. in a way that is based on
  12. as recorded by

Dapat juga digunakan kata-kata berikut

1.         said

2.         acknowledged

3.         acquiesced

4.         added

5.         addressed

6.         admitted

7.         advised

8.         advocated

9.         affirmed

10.     agreed

11.     alleged

12.     allowed

13.     announced

14.     answered

15.     approved

16.     argued

17.     assented

18.     asserted

19.     assumed

20.     assured

21.     asked

22.     attested

23.     avowed

24.     began

25.     boasted

26.     called

27.     claimed

28.     commented

29.     complained

30.     confided

31.     contradicted

32.     debated

33.     denied

34.     denounced

35.     described

36.     dictated

37.   directed

38.   disclosed

39.   disrupted

40.   divulged

41.   elaborated

42.   emphasized

43.   entreated

44.   enunciated

45.   estimated

46.   exclaimed

47.   explained

48.   exposed

49.   expressed

50.   feared

51.   foretold

52.   fumed

53.   held

54.   implied

55.   indicated

56.   inferred

57.   instructed

58.   itemized

59.   lectured

60.   maintained

61.   mentioned

62.   mused

63.   narrated

64.   noted

65.   notified

66.   objected

67.   observed

68.   opined

69.   orated

70.   petitioned

71.   pleaded

72.   pled

73.   pointed out

74.   predicted

75.   proclaimed

76.   professed

77.   prompted

78.   propounded

79.   publicized

80.   reassured

81.   reciprocated

82.   refuted

83.   related

84.   remonstrated

85.   replied

86.   responded

87.   restated

88.   resumed

89.   retorted

90.   returned

91.   revealed

92.   ruled

93.   sanctioned

94.   scoffed

95.   solicited

96.   specified

97.   spoke

98.   stated

99.   stipulated

100.         stormed

101.         stressed

102.         suggested

103.         thought

104.         told

105.         urged

106.         uttered

107.         vowed

 

2. in keeping with (in conformity or accord with), in line with, consistent with

They played according to the rules.

  1. in keeping with
  2. in line with
  3. consistent with
  4. in accordance with
  5. in the manner of
  6. in harmony with
  7. in agreement with
  8. in concert with
  9. in sympathy with
  10. in compliance with
  11. in conformity with
  12. in obedience to
  13. after the manner of
  14. in assent with
  15. in congruence with
  16. pursuant to
  17. as directed by
  18. as required by
  19. conforming to
  20. in agreement with
  21. consistent with

 

3. in relation to, depending on, in proportion to

Prices vary according to the quantity ordered.

  • in relation to
  • depending on
  • in proportion to
  • proportional to
  • commensurate with
  • as per

Untuk contoh penggunaannya, kita dapat melihatnya dengan melakukan copy paste kata-kata  tersebut ke https://ludwig.guru atau Google Dictionary

Contoh peggunaan lainnya:

“According to X, the moon is made of green cheese”

  • “If one accepts the research of X, the moon is made of green cheese”
  • “X has argued [convincingly, often, in other places, etc] that the moon is made of green cheese”
  • “Some commentators, most notably X, have argued that the moon is made of green cheese”
  • “Although X has mounted a case for the moon being made of green cheese, other studies (Y et al, 1492; Z & A, 1066 ) have suggested that it is in fact made of blue cheese.”
Sumber:  
https://cpb-us-e1.wpmucdn.com/blog.stcloudstate.edu/dist/d/10/files/2016/09/SynonymsForSaid-1yitpce.pdf https://www.collinsdictionary.com/dictionary/english-thesaurus/according-to  https://www.thesaurus.com/browse/according%20to     http://www.dictionary.com/browse/according-to  https://www.quora.com/What-other-words-could-be-used-instead-of-according-to

Dalam Bahasa Indonesia, kita dapat menggunakan kata “menurut”. Misalnya, “menurut Smith (1966) …”. Namun demikian terdapat pula berbagai pilihan kata penggantinya sebagaimana dicontohkan di bawah ini.

Penemuan Russell (1999) dengan jelas menunjukkan bahwa …
McKenzie (1988) menentang pandangan bahwa …
Lee (2000) berpendapat bahwa …
Briggs (1990) menyatakan bahwa …
Seperti yang dilaporkan Watson (1977) …
Seperti pendapat Black (1999) …
Huynh (1992) menggarisbawahi bahwa …
Patel (1989) menunjuk pada …
Studi yang dilakukan oleh Chen (1993) mengidentifikasi …
Watts (1999) berpendapat/berkomentar/mengklaim/menyatakan/bertahan dengan pendapatnya …
Hansen (1988) telah menyelidiki …
Nguyen (1995) mendiskusikan …
Adalah mendesak bahwa … (Gartner, 1989, p. 68).
Telah diperdebatkan bahwa … (Williams, 1997, p. 23).

Mudrajad, Kuncoro. “Metode Penelitian Untuk Bisnis dan Ekonomi.” Edisi I. Jakarta: Erlangga (2003).

Unduh file Pengganti “According to” 

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